HIV and AIDS: Causes, symptoms, and treatments


AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a virus called HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Disease changes the immune system, so people can be more sensitive to infection and diseases. This sensitivity worsens when syndrome progresses.

HIV aids is found in all tissues of the body but the body of the infected person (semen, vaginal fluid, blood and breast milk) is transmitted through fluid.

HIV and AIDS: What are they?

HIV virus, which attacks T cells (CD-4 cells) in the immune system. AIDS syndrome, which appears in the advanced phase of HIV infection

HIV is a virus.

AIDS is a medical condition.

HIV infection may be the reason for developing AIDS, however, it is possible to get infected with HIV without the development of AIDS, without treatment, HIV infection can progress and, in the end, it will develop in AIDS in most cases. After one person gets AIDS diagnosis, it will always continue with him in their medical history.

Causes of HIV and AIDS:

HIV is a retrovirus that infects the vital organs and cells of the human immune system.

Progress in the absence of Virus Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) – A drug treatment that prevents the development of slow or new HIV virus

The progress rate of the virus is different and depends on many factors;

These factors include the age of the patient, the prevention of HIV, the health care, the existence of other infections, the genetic heritage of the infected person, the resistance of certain symptoms of HIV and more.

How is HIV transmitted?

Sexual transmission:- This can happen when there is contact with infected sexual substances (anal, genital or oral mucous membrane). This can happen if having unprotected sex with vaginal, oral and anal sex or sharing sex toys with anyone infected with HIV.

Blood transmission:- Due to microscopic screening and alertness, nowadays, developed countries are less likely to get infected with HIV through HIV. However, in the injection of IV infected blood or users of IV drugs, it is extremely dangerous to share and recycle the syringe.

Perinatal transmission:- A mother can infect her child during birth, pregnancy and breast-feeding.


HIV symptoms

  • For the most part, the symptoms of HIV are the result of infection due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and / or parasites.
  • These conditions generally do not develop in the healthy immune system, which protect the body against infection.

Symptoms of early HIV infection

Many people with HIV do not take symptoms for many years even after several months of getting infected. After catching the virus, others can develop flu symptoms for 2-6 weeks.

The symptoms of early HIV infection may include:

  1. fever
  2. Chill
  3. Joint pain
  4. muscle aches
  5. Sore throat
  6. Sweat (especially at night)
  7. Growth of the glands
  8. A red grain
  9. Fatigue
  10. Weakness
  11. Unknowingly weight loss

Asymptomatic HIV

In many cases, after the initial symptoms disappear, there will be no other symptoms for many years.

During this time, the virus develops and harms the immune system and organs. Without taking medicines to prevent the replication of HIV, this process can take an average of 10 years. The infected person often does not experience any symptoms, feels good and looks healthy.

Late-stage HIV infection

If the treatment is not left, reducing the ability to fight HIV infection, it becomes weak for serious diseases, this stage of infection is called AIDS.

Symptoms of late-stage HIV infection may include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Diarrhea which is usually persistent or old
  • Dry cough
  • Fever for 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius) is permanent for weeks
  • night sweats
  • Permanent fatigue
  • Breathing trouble
  • Permanent inflammatory glands for weeks
  • Unknowingly weight loss
  • White spots on the tongue or mouth

During the late HIV infection, the risk of developing life-threatening disease is very high. Dangers in life Diseases including HIV treatment can be controlled, can be saved, and / or treated with appropriate medicines.


HIV and AIDS myths and facts

There are many misconceptions about HIV and AIDS that can not be transmitted through the virus:

  • shaking hands
  • hugging
  • casual kissing
  • sneezing
  • touching unbroken skin
  • using the same toilet
  • sharing towels
  • sharing cutlery
  • mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
  • or other forms of “casual contact”

Diagnosis of HIV and AIDS

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) estimates that 1 out of every 8 HIV-positive Americans is unaware of their HIV status.

HIV blood tests and results

Diagnosis is done through a blood test that specifically shows for the virus if the HIV virus has been detected, the result of the test is “positive”. Blood tests are done several times before giving positive results to the patient.

If a person has been exposed to the virus, then it is important that they will be tested as soon as possible. First HIV is detected, more likely treatment will be successful. Can also be used as a home test kit

After HIV infection, virus testing can take from 3 weeks to 6 months. Again the test may be necessary if a patient is currently at the highest risk of infection, then they can be tested immediately in the last 6 months. However, the provider will insist that another test will be done within a few weeks.

AIDS treatments

At present there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. The treatment can slow down the condition – and most people can get the chance to live a long and relatively healthy life.

Before treatment of HIV antiretroviral is important – according to the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization in June 2013, it improves quality of life, enhances life expectancy and reduces the risk of transmission.

At present, there is no vaccine or treatment for HIV, but the treatment has developed which are more effective and better tolerated – they can improve the quality of normal health and quality of life as a pill every day. .

Emergency HIV pills (post-exposure prophylaxis)

If a person believes that the virus has been detected in the last 72 hours (3 days), infection of HIV medicines such as PP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis) can stop infection. After contacting the virus, the treatment should be done as soon as possible.

PEP is a very demanding treatment of up to 4 weeks, a total of 28 days can be associated with unpleasant side effects (diarrhea, nausea, and headache).

After positive HIV diagnosis, regular blood tests are necessary to monitor the progress of the virus before starting treatment. This drug is designed to reduce the level of HIV in the blood, in which there are several benefits of antiretroviral drugs.

HIV is treated with antiretroviral (ARV). Treatment with HIV infection fights and virus spreads in the body. Generally, patients have taken a combination of drugs called Hart (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or cart (combination antiretroviral therapy)

Combination of medicines is suitable for every person. HIV treatment is usually based on regular and lifetime HIV based treatment routine quantities. Bullets should be taken at regular times at all times. Each class of ARV has different side effects, but some potential general side effects may include nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, headache, skin rashes or moods.

HIV prevention

To prevent being infected with HIV, healthcare professionals advise precautions related to:

  1. Unprotected sex:– Having sex without condom can increase the risk of getting infected with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Unprotected sex (vaginal, oral and / or anal sex) can spread HIV. It can be caught by sharing sex toys with anyone infected with HIV. Condoms should be used with each sexual act.
  2. Drug abuse and needle sharing:- Using drug in countries developed in HIV transmission is an important factor. Shared needle users can display HIV and other viruses like Hepatitis C. Such need-exchange programs are used to reduce infection due to drug misuse. If someone needs to use needle, then it should be a clean, unused, asymmetric needle.
  3. Body fluid exposure:- HIV can be contacted by taking caution in order to reduce the risk of polluted blood exposure. At all times, health care workers should use obstacles (gloves, masks, protective ornaments, shields and gowns). After being contaminated with blood or other body fluids, washing the skin continuously and completely immediately can reduce the likelihood of infection.
  4. Pregnancy:- Some ARVs can harm an inborn child, but an effective treatment plan can prevent HIV infection from eye to child; care should be taken to protect the health of the child, distribution through caesarean section may be necessary. HIV infected mother should not breastfeed.
  5. Education – health education is an important factor in reducing risky behavior.

About Subhas Sagar

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